Nova-FCSH, 6th February 2020, Auditorium II (Tower B, 3rd floor)
Welcome to the third edition of our graduate symposium, New Voices in Portuguese Translation Studies, designed to offer a platform where students of Translation and Translation Studies can develop their presentation skills in a safe environment.
The conference is part of a broader initiative to develop Translation Studies in Portugal by offering a support framework for young researchers who might wish to go on to pursue a career in the field. For this reason, we are committed providing constructive feedback to any presenters that specifically request it, as well as offering assistance with preparing papers for subsequent publication.
We are pleased to welcome 20 young researchers from around Portugal and beyond, who will be speaking, in English and in Portuguese, on a range of translation-related issues. Subjects include descriptive studies of literary translations done in different periods and geographical locations, analyses of translation issues from technical and specialized domains, and reflections on subjects as diverse as translation technology, indirect translation, linguistic hybridity and multimodality.
The programme will open with a Keynote Lecture by Elena Galvão of FLUP, who, as well as being a translation scholar, is also an experienced conference interpreter and translator/interpreter trainer. She will give us some insights into the profession and the kind of skills and training required to enter it, as well as reflecting upon its future in a globalized world dominated by technology.
This year, our Symposium will close with a very special session – a bilingual reading of excerpts from Nuno Júdice’s poetic prose work A Manta Religiosa (1982) and its English translation (The Religious Mantle, 2020). The readings will be done by the author himself and his translator David Swartz, who will both be available afterwards to take questions from the floor. For anyone interested in the world of literary-philosophical translation, this is a session not to be missed.
We hope very much that this will be an interesting and productive experience for you all, and that you will be encouraged to take your research in Translation Studies much further. Good luck.
|Organizing Committee||Advisory Board|
|Karen Bennett (FCSH/CETAPS)
Marco Neves (FCSH/CETAPS)
David Hardisty (FCSH/CETAPS)
Andreia Bairras (FCSH)
Joana Pereira (FCSH)
Liliana Zheng (FSCH)
Ren Qiaoliang (FCSH)
|Karen Bennett (FCSH/CETAPS)
Marco Neves (FCSH/CETAPS)
Maria Zulmira Castanheira (FCSH/CETAPS)
Gabriela Gândara (FCSH/CETAPS)
Iolanda Ramos (FCSH/CETAPS)
Isabel Branco (FCSH)
KEYNOTE LECTURE: Auditório II, 10.00 – 11.00
Born, Made or Replaced by AI: Conference Interpreters in the Age of Globalization – Prof. Elena Zagar Galvão (FLUP/CETAPS)
Starting from the problematization of the concepts of natural interpreting and professional interpreting, this presentation seeks to provide possible answers to the questions implied in the title: are interpreters born or made and will they be replaced by artificial intelligence? In doing so, it offers a brief historical overview of the conference interpreting profession and addresses both the aptitudes required and the skills to be developed and honed to work as a conference interpreter. The final part of the presentation discusses Computer Assisted Interpreting (CAI) and Machine Interpreting.
Elena Zagar Galvão
Elena Zagar Galvão obtained her PhD in Translation Studies at the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the University of Porto, Portugal, in 2015. The title of her thesis is Gesture in Simultaneous Interpreting from English into European Portuguese: An Exploratory Study. She has an MA in English Studies from the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, where she was a Fulbright grantee and a Teaching Assistant. She also holds a post-graduate diploma in Translation and Terminology from the University of Porto and a degree in translation from the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori, University of Trieste, Italy. She teaches English language and general translation from Portuguese into English to undergraduates. She also teaches Scientific and Technical Translation (English, Portuguese and Italian), Information Technology for translators, and Introduction to Interpreting in FLUP’s Master’s in Translation and Language Services. She is the regional treasurer of the Portugal Region of the International Association of Conference Interpreters (AIIC) and member of the Associação Portuguesa de Intérpretes de Conferência (APIC).
READING AND DEBATE: Auditório II, 18.30 – 19.00
TRANSLATING NOTHING: Selection from The Religious Mantle by Nuno Júdice read by the author and translator
Nuno Júdice’s A Manta Religiosa (1982) concerns the merging of poetry and reality, the triumph of immobility, and the dramatization of overlapping relationships between and within oneself. Júdice’s novel features a Poet, a Madman, an Apostle, and three female characters — Clara, Rachel and Paula, each existing within the other, and all of whom may be considered as one person in the act of searching for a new poetic philosophy. The Religious Mantle speaks to the self-reflective process of artistic creation, how it involves the love of the one for the many and the many for the one, the artist’s hands’ self-reflective vision in action, and the idea that poetry begins and ends with nothing.
In this presentation the author and translator will read selections from A Manta Religiosa (1982, Contexto Editora), (2020, New Meridian Arts) in Portuguese and English.
Nuno Júdice was born in 1949 in the village of Mexilhoeira Grande in the Algarve. He studied in Lisbon, where he received a Master’s degree in Romance Languages and Literature and in 1989 a PhD in Medieval Literature. Since 1972 he has written more than fifty books of poetry, fiction, essays, criticism and drama and has been awarded a number of prestigious awards, including the Pen Club Prize (1985), the D. Dinis da Casa de Mateus Prize (1990), the Portuguese Association of Writers Award (1995), and most recently the International Camaiore Prize (2017). In the Ibero-American world he won two important prizes: the Reina Sofia Poetry Prize, in Spain, and Poets of the Latin World, in Mexico. His book, Meditação sobre Ruínas [Meditation on Ruins], was a finalist for the European literary prize, Aristeion Preize. In addition to working as a professor at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Nuno Júdice served from 1997 to 2004 as the cultural attaché of the Portuguese Embassy in Paris. Since 2009 he is the Director of Colóquio-Letras, the most influential Literary review in the world of Portuguese Culture.
Originally from Toronto, Canada, David Swartz moved to Lisbon in 2014. He currently teaches English at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa. David´s recent translations include Nuno Júdice’s “An essay on inspiration / Ensaio sobre a inspiração” (Berkeley Poetry Review, Issue 46, 2016), and “Painting: Questioning Contemporary Painting / A Pintura contemporânea em questão (CIEBA-FBAUL, 2016), and “Matteo Lost His Job / Matteo Perdeu o Emprego” by Gonçalo M. Tavares (Absinthe 21: 2015).
PANEL 1 (Aud. II. 11.30 – 13.00)
11.30-12.00. Tiago Cardoso (FCSH)
One book in English, two stories in French: Fielding’s Tom Jones and the evolution of the ‘belles infidèles’
In 17th and 18th century France, the paradigm of the so-called ‘belles infidèles’ shaped the way translation was perceived. With the main goal being to adapt foreign texts to the tastes of French readers but also to highlight the country’s greatness, more often than not the final results resembled more an adaptation than a translation. Still, the French public continued to adhere to these works. But, as time went by, that same public started to call into question the ‘belles infidèles’ approach. In this presentation I will provide an overview of the evolution of the ‘belles infidèles’ between the second half of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century, using two translations of Henry Fielding’s The History of Tom Jones (1749) as illustrations. One was written by Pierre-Antoine De La Place (1750); the other by Léon de Wailly (1841). By attending to the different sociopolitical contexts and the perception of translation at the time of the aforementioned works, the comparison of these two translations not only allows us to understand how France saw itself both in the 18th and 19th century, but also the rise and fall of the ‘belles infidèles’ approach to translation.
12.00 – 12.30. Judite Jóia (FCSH)
A loucura é uma mulher: análise de duas traduções de Elogio da Loucura
Este Elogio da Loucura, célebre ensaio redigido por Erasmo de Roterdão, foi publicado pela primeira vez em 1511. Nele, o teólogo e filósofo renascentista apresenta-nos a Loucura – que afirma ser uma mulher – falando de si mesma na primeira pessoa e exaltando os benefícios que aguardam quem lhe presta culto; simultaneamente, criticando os maus hábitos dos “homens sábios”.
Nesta comunicação, pretendemos analisar duas traduções desta obra: a edição portuguesa de 1914, traduzida por A. J. Anselmo, e a edição bilingue de 2012, com tradução de Alexandra de Brito Mariano. O objectivo é a clarificação das duas estratégias de tradução utilizadas, no início da Primeira República e na contemporaneidade, interpelando a função de cada uma na respectiva cultura de chegada. O texto de Erasmo – um legado fundamental do humanismo renascentista, com nós argumentativos a expor já a crítica latente à Igreja Católica que haveria de dar origem à Reforma Protestante – é, na tradução de 1914, editado com o subtítulo “Crítica de Costumes” e apresentado com uma capa de romance popular. Em 2012, a tradução do mesmo texto recentra-o como objeto de estudo.
Por fim, abordaremos o modo como as atitudes sociais relativamente às mulheres poderão ter influenciado as duas traduções. O texto de partida coloca a Loucura, a espontaneidade e a irracionalidade como atributos indissociáveis da personalidade das mulheres, contrastando com uma suposta seriedade de carácter que seria característica dos homens. Todavia, é interessante notar como os autores das duas traduções processaram de maneira bastante diferente o mesmo conteúdo.
12.30 – 13.00. Ana Rita Brettes (FCSH)
Orlando, de Virgínia Woolf. As questões de género presentes em duas traduções
Esta apresentação consiste na análise de duas traduções em português de Orlando, de Virgínia Woolf. A primeira tradução foi publicada, em 1962, em Portugal, pela tradutora e poetisa Cecília Meireles. Nesta época, o país encontrava-se num regime de ditadura, no “Estado Novo”, cujo poder da censura permitia editar ou proibir publicações literárias caso estas atentassem contra o regime política, social ou moralmente. A segunda tradução portuguesa em análise foi publicada já no séc. XXI, em 2019 e é de Miguel Romeira, ator, escritor e tradutor que, aproveitando o lançamento nacional do filme Vita & Virginia, publica uma nova tradução de Orlando com uma abordagem ao texto original visivelmente diferente da de 1962.
Pretende fazer-se um enquadramento sociocultural destas duas traduções, referindo as questões de género presentes em ambas e justificando as intenções por detrás de cada publicação.
PANEL 2 (Sala T13. 11.30 – 13.00)
Translating To and From Chinese
11.30 – 12.00. Ren Qiaoliang (FSCH)
Two English translations of Shijing: a comparative analysis from the perspective of the socio-historical context
Shijing is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry; it contains three hundred and five poems that date back to the 11th to 6th century B.C.E. and has a history of around three hundred years in English translation. At present, most Chinese studies curriculums give little attention to the interrelation between translation theory and the socio-historical context to which they belong. Nevertheless, the social, cultural and political contexts play an indispensable role in the translation process.
This paper will compare two English translations of Shijing from different social-historical contexts. The first is The She King (1871), translated by the missionary James Legge under Europe’s colonial expansion; the other is Arthur Waley’s The Book of Songs (1937) that was completed around the time of the First World War.
By implementing a descriptive analysis, this paper will specify how their choices were determined by the purposes of their translation and their respective intended readers under the socio-historical context. This paper’s final objective is to elucidate the connections between the characteristics of their translations and their respective social, cultural and political contexts.
12.00 – 12.30. Frederico Vidal (UCP)
Beijing Comrades: a case study of Tongzhi literature in translation
Although Beijing Comrades (1998) by Beijing Tongzhi may have surpassed its clandestine origins, it remains a controversial piece of literature to this very day. It has often been hailed as the pinnacle of “Comrade Literature” (同志文学 tongzhi wenxue) and a testament to the trials the LGBTQI community in China goes through, yet it has failed to be read by a wider audience, having only been translated into a handful of languages.
This paper argues how this type of emergent queer literary discourse is more than just a manifestation of gay culture: it is a serious tool with which awareness and resistance are built. Therefore, it is urgent to translate tongzhi literature, in order to gain a better understanding of the discriminatory policies and cultural biases this community faces in contemporary China.
A comparison between a self-made Portuguese translation and its original Chinese text – along with its published English counterpart – will be the grounds on which the difficulties of translating such a text will be explained: the sensitivity of the subject, the distance between languages and the lack of resources. Even though more than two decades have passed, the book remains current and has yet to receive the attention it deserves – and has failed to do so, as Queer Studies in China have their own hurdles to cross.
12.30 – 13.00. Wang Yuqin (Instituto Confúcio FLUL/CETAPS)
A brief introduction to the history of Chinese translations of Portuguese literature
Sino-Portuguese relations can be traced all the way back to 1514 during the Ming dynasty of China. Relations between the modern political entities of the People’s Republic of China and the Portuguese Republic officially began on 2 February 1979, and the comprehensive strategic partnership was established in 2005. The first Portuguese literary works were imported and translated by Mao Dun in the 1920s. This study is designed to trace the development of Chinese translations of Portuguese literature from the 1920s to contemporary China, highlighting the boom that took place in the 1980s, particularly since the 1990s with the announcement of Portugal’s first Nobel Prize Winner José de Sousa Saramago. In the context of cultural globalization, the new century is likely to see the flourishing of Portuguese literature in Chinese translation.
PANEL 3 (Aud. II. 14.30 – 16.00)
Multimodality and the Challenges of Conceptualization
14.30 – 15.00. Katrin Pieper (FLUC/CETAPS)
In search of a descriptive model for multimodal translations
This search began with an analysis of a subtitled film in which sign language and spoken language occur simultaneously. Thus, the film Jenseits der Stille (Caroline Link, Germany, 1996) was the starting point for research aimed at finding a solution for how to describe the various levels of communication and translation in this specific example of multilingualism and multimodality and how to represent them in a comprehensible scheme. The initial approach involved collecting all the possible modes that appear in subtitling and demonstrating their interaction. Subsequently, the vague idea emerged that, due to the many levels that have to be considered in the context of subtitling, this approach might be useful not only for describing subtitled films, but also for any kind of multimodal translation. Although not all the possible modes and levels of communication are relevant in every form of multimodal translation, it would be desirable if a multimodal description model could be universally valid. This presentation is about exploring various models from diverse authors who offer different solutions to the same problem, and about the development of a model for describing audiovisual translations, especially subtitled films, which led to the discovery that the scheme might be applicable to other multimodal translations as well.
15.00 – 15.30. María Cantarero Muñoz (U. Salamanca)
More than words, more than languages: transcreation and non-translation in advertising texts
The main purpose of this paper is to analyse how new textual genres influence the translator’s work, focusing on the relationship between these genres and transcreation and (non-) translation strategies in advertising texts.
We start from the premise that the internationalisation of companies and forms of advertising on social networks and the Internet have begun to break down the barriers between different genres and languages. Likewise, the boundaries between original and translation are blurred in the constant exchange of multimodal messages. The translator must be able to recognise these genres and be aware of the various strategies available for translating advertising messages, which can range from transcreation to (non-)translation. This will open up new avenues of research that will provide professionals in this field with more analytical tools and translation strategies.
In order to give an overview of the market and resources available, we will provide some examples of advertisings in which different translation strategies are perceivable. At the same time, we will explain the phases in which the intercultural mediator intervenes in advertising campaigns and the form and demands made by this type of translation.
15.30 – 16.00. Gisele Dionísio da Silva (FCSH/CETAPS)
Translating ideas into words: the challenges of conceptualisation in translation research
Conceptualisation, or the process of establishing a clear definition for a given concept to be used in research, is viewed as a core principle of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Such a process directly influences the ways in which concepts are subsequently measured and data is collected and interpreted. This paper offers an overview of the conceptualisation steps taken to carry out an ongoing survey concerning the production of book translations by Brazilian university publishers (UPs) from 2009 to 2019. Publishers are a regular component in the administrative structure of Brazilian universities, and such translations are often produced to increment the academic bibliography available in Portuguese. Gathering data from a number of printed and digital sources on the people, institutions, languages, and disciplinary areas involved in this translational scenario required prior conceptualisation of terms like “translation”, “translator”, “source/target language”, and “source/target text”, all of them long-standing cornerstones of translation-related research. Preliminary results show that a number of books published by Brazilian UPs and catalogued as translations defy the definitions put in place at the start of the survey, which calls for a constant refining strategy throughout the research study and, ultimately, for a reassessment of some of the epistemological and conceptual foundations of Translation Studies.
PANEL 4 (Sala T13. 14.30 – 16.30)
Anglophone Literature in Portuguese
14.30 – 15.00. Guilherme Machado (FCSH) – Whitman’s Song of the Open Road by way of Seara Nova
This presentation will focus on a Portuguese translation of Song of the Open Road from Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass, by Luiz Cardim (1947). It was published under the aegis of Seara Nova, a periodical of great importance to the ideological struggle at the time. This publication will be discussed and contextualized along with the aforementioned translation. Its appearance in Portugal under salazarismo is not without interest, given the “free” nature (from all angles) of Whitman’s poetry.
15.00 – 15.30. Rita Monteiro (FLUL)
The (non) translation of the Brontë sisters in Portugal: Proposal for a descriptive study
Charlotte, Anne, and Emily Brontë are among the best-known authors of the 19th century. Their works have continued to generate discussion and interest worldwide, both in academia and in popular culture. Portugal is no exception to this enduring popularity. Between 1940 and 2016, 25 translations and re-translations of their novels were published in Portugal, as well as several reprints and reeditions. In addition, at least twelve film and television adaptations were released in Portugal between 1935 and 2012. Nevertheless, the position of the Brontë sisters in this target culture, and how they were (not) translated across different historical periods, has not been studied in detail.
This paper presents a PhD project that will study the (non) translation of the Brontë Sisters in Portugal. We propose to investigate how these three authors were (not) translated in Portugal, with a particular focus on how and why the representation of women and women characters changed in different periods of time, and across different media, between 1935 and present day. We will begin by presenting the relevance and motivations behind this current study, both in a national and international context, followed by an overview of the chosen theoretical framework and methodology that forms the basis for our research in Translation Studies. Finally, we will discuss some preliminary findings and the next steps in our investigation, as well as potential difficulties and questions we may face.
15.30 – 16.00 Mariya Veremiychuk (FCSH)
Dan Brown’s Angels and Demons in Portuguese and Russian
Esta apresentação irá focar-se no livro Angels & Demons pelo autor americano Dan Brown. O objetivo será analisar as traduções na língua Portuguesa e na língua Russa da mesma obra, comparando-as com o original, escrito em Inglês.
Ao debruçar sobre a tradução desta obra para o português, de Mário Dias Correia (2005) deparamo-nos com várias estratégias optadas pelo tradutor. Apesar de se poderem observar adaptações às regras de escrita da língua portuguesa e adaptações de modos de tratamento, Mário Dias Correia optou por traduzir de modo a que, presumidamente, o leitor conseguisse ter uma sensação de leitura de um texto estrangeiro. Alguns exemplos desta sua estratégia, são termos como “Nestlé’s Quik” e “jeans”, que foram mantidos em inglês, dando assim um “ar americano” à obra.
No que diz respeito à tradução em russo de Gleb Kosov (2005), o tradutor obteve por adaptar a obra à cultura do público alvo, de modo a proporcionar uma leitura mais agradável aos seus leitores. Algumas características da língua inglesa continuam a estar presentes na tradução, sendo, contudo mínimas. A escolha de manter os aspetos da língua estrangeira foi posta de lado.
PANEL 5 (Aud. II. 16.30 – 18.30)
Indirect Translation and Hybridity
16.30 – 17.00 Guilherme Braga (CETAPS)
Knausgård lê Celan: Um dilema tradutório metatextual em três línguas
No sexto e último volume do longo romance Min kamp (2009-2011), o escritor norueguês Karl Ove Knausgård oferece uma extensa leitura cerrada do enigmático poema “Engführung”, de Paul Celan. A partir da tradução norueguesa feita por Øyvind Berg (“Trangføring”), por dezenas de páginas Knausgård analisa obsessivamente os mais ínfimos detalhes que compõem os versos do poema, e por fim vale-se de sua análise rigorosa para embasar a interpretação que oferece ao leitor. Porém certas afirmações feitas por Knausgård baseiam-se em ambiguidades de leitura presentes apenas no texto norueguês de Berg, de maneira que parte dos raciocínios interpretativos desenvolvidos pelo autor revelam-se de todo incompatíveis com o poema originalmente escrito em alemão por Celan.
Nessa situação, como fazer com que o texto norueguês de Knausgård efetivamente dialogue com os versos alemães de “Engführung” em uma tradução do todo para o português? Se por um lado não há como alterar o poema traduzido de Celan para que se conforme à leitura de Knausgård, por outro não há como escapar ao fato de que no livro de Knausgård é justamente a leitura feita pelo autor o que importa. Esta comunicação, a ser apresentada pelo tradutor de Knausgård no Brasil, tem por objetivo analisar as características desse complexo dilema tradutório metatextual em três línguas e discutir o laborioso processo tradutório que possibilitou uma solução plausível nesse espaço tradutório deveras estreito.
17.00 – 17.30. Anabela Valente (U. Aveiro/CETAPS)
Interlingual transit routes in the dissemination of Scandinavian crime literature
There has been much research carried out into Scandinavian Crime Fiction but most of it has concentrated on film and television, particularly since the global success of Stieg Larsson. This paper, on the other hand, will focus on the translation of Scandinavian Crime Fiction and subsequent transit routes between English, Spanish and Portuguese, as well as the textual alterations introduced at different stages. Drawing on Heilbron’s (1999) model of international translation flows, it attempts to identify the transit routes followed by a series of novels published since 1965, with particular attention to the phenomenon of indirect translation. What factors contribute to a publisher’s decision to commission a direct or indirect translation? And did the success of Stieg Larsson in any way affect the global dynamics in this regard?
17.30 – 18.00. Hélder Lopes (FLUL)
The politics of indirect translation: Romeo and Juliet in Cape Verdean Creole
This paper traces the textual transits involved in the production of the Cape Verdean Creole version of Romeo and Juliet, emphasising the role of Brazilian Portuguese as the intermediate language. Commissioned by the Brazilian Ministry of Education and Health in 1937, Onestaldo de Pennafort Caldas’s Romeu e Julieta was adapted by Gabriel Santana Villela for the Galpão troupe in 1992, becoming the source for Emanuel Ribeiro’s adaptation into Cape Verdean Creole (2017). As far as the ultimate target language is concerned, I will consider the hypothesis that there are, in fact, two distinct translations: 1) a 1998 version authored by Mário Matos; and 2) a second translation signed by Emanuel Ribeiro. The latter was used in the production by the Mindelact Association and Brazilian theatre director Fabiano Muniz (Caixa Preta theatre troupe) performed at the 23rd edition of the Mindelact theatre festival, in Cabo Verde. Both plays were subsequently performed – the first in 1998 and the second in 2017- by the theatre troupe of Mindelo Portuguese Cultural Centre under the direction of João Branco.
18.00 – 18.30. Andreia Sarabando (U. Aveiro)
Potiki in Portuguese: language hybridity and the pitfalls of paratext
New Zealand literature is notoriously under-translated into (European) Portuguese, and even more so when it comes to works by Māori writers. Patricia Grace’s novel Potiki (1986) is an exception in the Portuguese context. However, Potiki: O Filho Mais Novo [Potiki: The Youngest Son] (transl. José Carlos Pombo. Lisbon: Edições Duarte Reis, 2004) is out of print and difficult to get hold of. A Translator’s Note at the beginning of the book explains that, for enhanced readability, a glossary is provided due to the high number of words in Māori, and their importance in understanding the story. Apart from a glossary, there are also footnotes with translations of Māori expressions and poems throughout the Portuguese text. The existence of such paratextual elements in the target text, which are absent in the source text, seems to indicate a preoccupation with mediation between the universe of discourse (André Lefevere) pertaining to the source text and the readers of the Portuguese text, a preoccupation which was already apparent in the inclusion of an explanatory subtitle.
This paper is interested in investigating to what extent providing the meaning of Māori words works towards a better understanding of Māoritanga (Māori culture, traditions and way of living), and/or indeed of other New Zealand-specific cultural and social contexts, and whether that perceived gap can be bridged exclusively through linguistic clarification. Another line of inquiry includes questioning the apparent assumption that the only aspects of Aotearoa New Zealand that might require explanation are Indigenous features, which implicitly situates non-Māori New Zealand cultural flows as familiar, generically “European” transnational cultural material which needs no special attention at the same time as it exoticises Māori. Further aesthetic and ideological issues implicated in the translation choices concerning the maintenance or modification of the features of linguistic hybridity present in the source text will also be examined.
PANEL 6 (T13. 16.30 – 18.30)
Technical and Specialized Translation
16.30 – 17.00. Ty Trainer (FLUP)
Automatically political: the socio-political dimensions of Machine Translation
In an increasingly interconnected world, developments in machine translation and AI are one of the driving forces behind the rapidly evolving field of translation technology. In the light of these advances, the futuristic outlook of machine translation raises a unique question: what were the historical conditions that led to this technology’s development before globalization?
This paper seeks to explore the socio-political dimensions that shaped the development of four machine translation projects in separate but overlapping periods in the 20th and 21st centuries, namely: Georgetown Automatic Translation (GAT), Traduction Automatique de l’Université de Montréal (TAUM/Météo), Eurotra and Apertium. Following a brief overview of each project’s history and creation from a linguistic and technical standpoint, the geopolitical conditions surrounding their emergence will be analysed, seeking to elucidate the circumstances under which they were developed. As noted by Slocum (1985), the Post-WWII period and the beginning of the Cold War served as the backdrop for the creation of the first machine translation engine (GAT, 1952-1970), which was developed for the sole purpose of translating Russian physics texts into English. A decade later and further north, the development of TAUM and later Météo (1962-1970) in the French-majority and federally protected province of Québec would result in the world’s first entirely automatic machine translation system. Across the Atlantic, Hutchins (1995) notes that efforts by the European Commission to ensure access to administrative and legal proceedings by citizens of its member states led to the development of Eurotra (1978-1992), an unsuccessful prototype that was ultimately useful in laying the foundation for the European Union’s language strategy. Within one of Europe’s most linguistically diverse states, Corbí-Bellot (2005) highlights that the development of Apertium (2009-present) in Spain was fueled both by business interests and by constitutional obligations to protect the linguistic rights of the country’s citizens.
Through an analysis of the four major examples outlined above, it is possible to characterize each platform as being propelled by one or more of three distinct political motivations, identified here as adversarial, collaborative and integrative. By applying these political motivations to the aforementioned projects, a more profound understanding of machine translation’s historical development can be achieved, as well as a foundation upon which to make inferences about its future.
17.00 – 17.30. Ariadna Coelho (FLUL)
Direitos, obrigações e estatuto: o tradutor jurídico nos Estados Membros da CPLP
O presente artigo visa apresentar genericamente a pesquisa que vem sendo realizada sobre Direitos, Obrigações e Estatuto: o tradutor jurídico nos Estados Membros da CPLP, a qual cruza os Estudos de Tradutor, Sociologia da Tradução e o Direito, e, pretende identificar, descrever e analisar comparativamente a tríade direitos, obrigações e estatuto do tradutor jurídico nos países da CPLP. Para isso, pretende coligir e dar a conhecer, de forma eficiente, responsável e inclusiva, tais informações sobre direitos e obrigações do tradutor jurídico. Pretende ainda recolher e analisar dados sobre a percepção do tradutor jurídico dos seus direitos, obrigações e estatuto através da realização de um questionário. Entre os objetivos que este estudo poderá potencialmente concretizar, sublinham-se os seguintes: (1) contribuir para o aprimoramento do estatuto e da empregabilidade plena e produtiva do tradutor jurídico nos países da CPLP; (2) apontar possíveis esforços comuns a serem desenvolvidos para contribuir para a melhoria do estatuto do tradutor jurídico revitalizando a parceria global para o desenvolvimento sustentável dentre os Estados-membros da CPLP; (3) dar continuidade às “Recomendações sobre a segurança jurídica dos tradutores e das traduções” indicadas pela Unesco em 1976, a partir das considerações e percepções dos próprios tradutores jurídicos sobre como aprimorar sua proteção jurídica e melhorar seu estatuto (nas diversas acepções que este termo assume).
17.30 – 18.00. Tereza Afonso (U. Salamanca)
Da tradução à redacção jurídica: o eurolecto português e as normas de transposição nacionais
Da União Europeia, enquanto projeto político e económico, ressalta a supranacionalidade e o primado do Direito Europeu sobre o Direito interno do Estados-membros. Sob o lema “Unidos na Diversidade”, a voz em uníssono dos 28 Estados-membros manifesta-se através dos actos legislativos da EU por via das 24 línguas oficiais da UE. Como expressão de compromisso e almejada neutralidade, a linguagem jurídica das normas emanadas das instituições europeias recebeu o nome de eurolecto, termo cunhado por Goffin (1994) que se contrapõe a outros menos lisonjeiros (Eurospeak, Eurofog, Eurolegalese, eurobabillage, Euronebel, etc.), evocativos da baixa tolerância aos constructos provenientes de uma realidade supranacional, às frases pouco idiomáticas, sem naturalidade e às colocações atípicas. A nossa proposta consiste em avaliar o grau de desfasamento do eurolecto português relativamente ao português legislativo nacional através do estudo da fraseologia da área do Direito do Ambiente, com recurso a um corpus comparável composto de directivas (C1), respectiva legislação de transposição (C2) e legislação avulsa (C3) durante o período compreendido entre 1985 e 2018. Cientes do longo e complexo processo legislativo da UE em que a tradução é uma constante, na senda de Bevilacqua (1999, 2001) iremos extrair e comparar as Unidades Fraseológicas Especializadas (UFEs) utilizadas nas directivas, enquanto versão primária do eurolecto português e produto de tradução interlinguística, nos textos de transposição intralinguística ou de reescrita, e na legislação avulsa, com a delimitação temática e temporal já mencionadas.
18.00 – 18.30. Phillippa May Bennett (FLUC)
Back translation in clinical trials: a historical overview
50 years after it was first devised, Richard W. Brislin’s translation model is still favoured in the translation of documents for multilingual clinical trials. Backtranslation, one of the steps in this translation process, is widely recognised as a safety measure for checking the accuracy and reliability of translations in high risk contexts. In this short presentation, I will explore the following topics: When and how did the concept of backtranslation arise? What is its purpose? What processes are actually involved? Is Brislin’s model still relevant today?
ANA RITA BRETTES
Trabalha na Câmara de Comércio Luso Alemã como Tradutora e Professora de Inglês Técnico e de Português como Língua Estrangeira. É Tradutora Técnica na Ana Aeroportos e Tradutora na Nirvana Studios, tendo sido responsável pela tradução e adaptação do catálogo e exposição teatral itinerante “Herdeiros do Apokalipse”. Inaugurou e criou o currículo bilíngue do Astoria |nternational School (2009 a 2013) baseado nas Inteligências Múltiplas de Howard Gardner, tendo organizado a Conferência “Primeiros Passos para a Mudança na Educação do Séc. XXI” na Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa em Fevereiro de 2013.
Mestranda no curso de Tradução (área de especialização de Inglês) na FCSH da Universidade de Lisboa tem a Licenciatura em Línguas e Literaturas Modernas na variante de Inglês e Alemão (2000) e Especialização em Português como Língua Estrangeira (2007) na Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa
Anabela Gonçalves Quaresma Valente is a third-year doctoral student in Translation and Terminology, at the Faculty of Human and Social Sciences of Nova University of Lisbon. She received a bachelor’s degree in Interpreting and Translation (English/French) from the Higher Institute of Interpreting and Administration in Porto (4 years). She is currently an English Lecturer at the University of Aveiro/Portugal and an English teacher at the British Council.
Andreia Sarabando is a lecturer at the University of Aveiro and is currently doing a PhD in Translation and Terminology. She has translated several books on Portuguese contemporary art, as well as several volumes of poetry into Portuguese. She has also co-edited two bilingual collections of articles dealing with postcolonial issues: Áfricas Contemporâneas | Contemporary Africas and Itinerâncias: Percursos e Representações da Pós-colonialidade | Journeys: Postcolonial Trajectories and Representations.
Ariadna Coelho é psicóloga, advogada, tradutora, doutoranda em Estudos de Tradução no programa interuniversitário da FLUL, UCP e FCSH-Nova, e pesquisadora do CEAUL/ULICES | Centro de Estudos Anglísticos da FLUL, membro da APTRAD | Associação de Profissionais de Tradução e Interpretação (#456).
Frederico Duarte Vidal is a MA student in Asian Studies at the FCH-Católica and has a degree in Translation (German and French) from the FCSH-NOVA. He works as a research assistant and is currently preparing his thesis in Queer Studies – with a focus on Tongzhi Literature.
GISELE DIONÍSIO DA SILVA
Gisele Dionísio da Silva currently pursues a PhD degree in Translation Studies at the NOVA University of Lisbon. Her research interests include specialised translation and relations between translators and other agents in the publishing industry. She is the author of “O Corvo” no Brasil: a autoria do tradutor (Editora UFG, 2006).
Doutor e mestre em Estudos de Literatura pela Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil) com pós-doutoramento em tradução literária pela Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Tradutor literário a partir do inglês, do norueguês e do sueco com mais de 50 traduções de obras clássicas e contemporâneas publicadas no Brasil.
Guilherme Machado has a degree from the University of Évora. Currently he’s doing a Masters in Translation at Nova University of Lisbon. He’s particularly interested in poetry.
Holder of a BA degree in Languages, Literatures and Cultures (English and Spanish) from the School of Arts and Humanities, University of Lisbon, and an MA in Translation Studies, Nova University, Lisbon, Hélder Lopes entered the international PhD programme in Comparative Literature (U. Lisbon, Leuven and Bologna) in 2018 as an FCT scholarship holder. His research focuses on Cape Verdean postcolonial theatre.
Judite Jóia concluiu a Licenciatura em Ciências da Comunicação na Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (2007). Depois de algumas experiências profissionais na área da comunicação cultural, trabalha actualmente numa livraria. Frequenta o mestrado em Tradução na FCSH.
Katrin Pieper estudou Tradução na Universidade de Leipzig e especializou-se em Tradução Audiovisual. Após a sua graduação, começou a trabalhar como legendadora de óperas, documentários e filmes na digim, uma empresa de pós-produção de DVDs em Halle, antes de mudar para Berlim, onde continuou sua carreira como gestora de projetos de legendagem e voice-over para a MTV Networks, entre outros, na VSI International, uma empresa internacional de dobragem e legendagem. Em 2011 passou a viver em Portugal, onde desde então tem trabalhado como legendadora e tradutora freelancer e, desde 2012, como professora de alemão na Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Coimbra. Em 2015 iniciou o seu doutoramento em Línguas Modernas: Cultura, Literatura e Tradução na mesma faculdade e trabalha numa tese sobre censura na legendagem durante o Estado Novo em Portugal.
MARIA CANTARERO MUÑOZ
María Cantarero has a Degree in Translation and Interpretation from the University of Granada and a Master’s Degree in Translation and Intercultural Mediation from the University of Salamanca. She is a member of the research group Tradic (Translation, Ideology and Culture) at the same institution, where she is currently working on a project about symbolic violence and translation. Her research centres on the representation of diverse identities through the social media and the Internet.
Mariya Veremiychuk é uma aluna de 2º ano de Licenciatura em Tradução (Inglês e Alemão), na Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, interessada em Tradução Literária e Interpretação.
PHILLIPPA MAY BENNETT
Phillippa May Bennett lectures in English language on the Modern Language Degree course and in Portuguese-English Translation on the Masters in Translation at the University of Coimbra. She runs PMB Translations, specialising in Portuguese-to-English medical work, from her base in Coimbra, Portugal. Before moving there, she spent 5 years in Brazil as a translator and English teacher. Her particular areas of interest are clinical trials and regulatory documentation. She is a Chartered Linguist (Translation), member of the CIoL, Aptrad and MET.
Ren Qiaoliang is a first-year Master’s student majoring in Translation at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa and also an online translator at Jinhua Chengfeng Translation Co., Ltd. In 2017, she studied Portuguese As a Second Language/Foreign Language at the University of Aveiro, where she was an exchange student under a China Scholarship Council’s award program.
Rita Monteiro has an MA in Translation (2018) and is currently a 2nd year student of the inter-university PhD in Translation Studies (FLUL-UCP-FCSH), working on the (non)translation of the Brontë sisters in Portugal. Her main research interests are literary translation, translation history, and audiovisual translation. She also works as a freelance translator, specializing in legal, business, and technological translation.
Tereza Afonso é tradutora e doutoranda em Ciências Sociais (tradução e mediação intercultural) da Universidade de Salamanca. É licenciada em Direito pela Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Lisboa (1999), pós-graduada em Retail Management pelo INDEG/ISCTE (2003) e mestre em Tradução em Comunicação Multilingue pela Universidade do Minho (2017). Recebeu o prémio APTRAD – Melhor Estudante Finalista de Mestrado em Tradução 2017 e foi Bolseira por Mérito do ano lectivo 2015/2016.
Tiago Cardoso is doing a Master’s degree in Translation at FCSH-NOVA University. He has a Bachelor’s degree in Languages, Literatures and Cultures (English/French) and his main interest is the history and literature of Anglophone countries.
Ty Trainer is a student of the Master’s in Translation and Language Services program at Faculty of Letters, University of Porto. Originally from the United States, Ty has lived in Brazil, Chile and Portugal and has worked professionally in freelance and in-house translation roles since 2015, currently serving as a Machine Translation Implementation Manager at TransPerfect.
Wang Yuqin is a language teacher at Tianjin Foreign Studies University in China, currently working in the Confucius Institute at FLUL and researching in CETAPS as an exchange visitor. She also works part-time as a translator and interpreter. Her research focuses specifically on Sino-English translation practice and language education.
The Organizing Committee would like to thank all the people that worked behind the scenes to make this Symposium possible, particularly Frederico Vidal for the design of the poster; Cristina Carinhas from CETAPS for the badges, name plaques and certificates; and Katrin Pieper and Rita Menezes for the photography.